Children & Adolescents Clinic

 Home Parent's Guide

Clinical Reference Systems: Pediatric Advisor 10.0

The Circumcision Decision: Pros and Cons

What is a circumcision?

Circumcision means cutting off the foreskin or ring of tissue that covers the head of the penis. If you decide to have your newborn son circumcised, it is usually done the day he goes home from the hospital.

Fewer children in the U.S. are being circumcised now than several years ago. In 1979, 90% of American males were circumcised compared to 60% now.

The following information should help you decide what is best for your son.

What are the cultural aspects of circumcision?

Followers of the Jewish and Moslem faiths perform circumcision for religious reasons. Nonreligious circumcision became popular in English-speaking countries between 1920 and 1950. At this time it was thought that circumcision might help prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Circumcision never became a common practice in Asia, South America, Central America, or most of Europe. Over 80% of the males in the world are not circumcised.

What is the purpose of the foreskin?

The foreskin on the penis is not some cosmic error. The foreskin:

  • protects the glans (top of the penis) against urine, feces, and other types of irritation
  • protects against infection or scarring of the urinary opening (although this is rare)
  • protects the sensitivity of the glans.

What are the pros of circumcision?

Some of the reasons you may want to circumcise are:

  • Protects against urinary tract infections (UTIs) during the first year of life. However, UTIs are rare and easily treated.
  • Prevents infections under the foreskin. It also prevents persistent tight foreskin. Both of these problems are rare and are usually due to pulling back the foreskin too often or too hard.
  • Decreases the risk of getting some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) later in life. However, it does not completely prevent any STD.
  • Lowers the risk of cancer of the penis. However, good hygiene offers equal protection against this very rare cancer.
  • Keeps your son's appearance "like other boys" or "like his father." Boys may not mind looking different from other males in their family. However, they do mind being harassed in the locker room or shower about their foreskin. This could happen if most of their buddies are circumcised. It can be emotionally painful to be a trailblazer about the appearance of one's genitals.

All in all, nonreligious circumcision is mainly cosmetic surgery.

What are the cons of circumcision?

Some of the reasons not to circumcise include:

  • Surgical complications. Problems that may occur are skin or bloodstream infections, bleeding, gangrene, scarring, and various surgical accidents. A recent study showed that 1 of every 500 circumcised newborns suffered a serious side effect.
  • Pain. The procedure causes pain. However, the doctor can use some anesthetic around the area to block some of the pain.
  • Cost. The cost of circumcision is about $100 per procedure in the U.S. You may have to pay for the procedure yourself because many medical insurance companies do not cover the costs of this procedure.
  • You must decide quickly. Delaying the decision also carries a risk. If you initially decide not to have your son circumcised, and then change your mind after your son is 2 months old, the procedure will require a general anesthesia. So try to make your final decision during the first month of life.


Circumcision of boys for religious purposes will continue. The need to circumcise other boys is open to question. Just because a father was circumcised doesn't mean that the son needs to be circumcised. Because the foreskin comes as standard equipment, you might consider leaving it intact, unless your son will be going to a school where everyone else is likely to be circumcised. The risks and benefits are both too small to swing the vote either way. This is a parental decision, not a medical decision.

For information on home care after a circumcision see:

Circumcision Care and Problems

Written by B.D. Schmitt, M.D., author of "Your Child's Health," Bantam Books.
Copyright 1999 Clinical Reference Systems